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Celiac Disease: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Celiac Disease: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment
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Celiac Disease: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Celiac Disease is a complex autoimmune disorder triggered by the consumption of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye.

This condition affects the small intestine, leading to various symptoms like pain, diarrhea and potential long-term complications like nutritional deficiency & risk to progress into cancer.



Celiac Disease is a chronic condition where the ingestion of gluten causes an immune response that damages the lining of the small intestine.

This damage affects the absorption of nutrients, leading to a range of symptoms and complications.



There are different types of celiac disease, including classical celiac disease, non-classical or atypical celiac disease, silent celiac disease, and potential celiac



The primary cause of celiac disease is the ingestion of gluten. Genetic factors play a significant role, and individuals with a family history of celiac disease are at a higher risk.


 Symptoms of Celiac Disease Across Age Groups and Genders:

Celiac Disease manifests in diverse ways, and symptoms can vary based on age and gender. Understanding these distinctions is crucial for timely diagnosis and effective management.


Celiac Disease in Children:

  • Digestive Issues:

Children often experience gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and constipation.


  • Failure to Thrive:

Impaired nutrient absorption may lead to slowed growth and development, indicating a failure to thrive.


  • Behavioral Changes:

Irritability, mood swings, and changes in behavior may be observed due to discomfort and malabsorption.


  • Dental Problems:

Delayed tooth development and enamel defects in teeth are common manifestations in children with celiac disease.

Celiac Disease in Adults:

  • Gastrointestinal Symptoms:

Adults may experience chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloating after consuming gluten.


  • Fatigue:

Persistent fatigue and weakness are common due to nutrient deficiencies caused by malabsorption.

  • Joint Pain:

Some adults may develop joint pain and inflammation, affecting mobility.


  • Anemia:

Iron deficiency anaemia is a frequent consequence of impaired iron absorption in adults with celiac disease.


Celiac Disease in Females:

  • Menstrual Irregularities:

Celiac disease can impact the menstrual cycle, leading to irregularities and fertility issues.


  • Pregnancy Complications:

Untreated celiac disease may increase the risk of complications during pregnancy, including preterm birth.


  • Hormonal Imbalances:

Hormonal disruptions may contribute to symptoms such as mood swings and fatigue in females with celiac disease.


  • Osteoporosis Risk:

Reduced calcium absorption may elevate the risk of osteoporosis, particularly in postmenopausal women.


Recognizing the Signs:

Early recognition of these symptoms is crucial for prompt diagnosis and initiating a gluten-free lifestyle.

If persistent symptoms are observed, consulting a healthcare professional is essential for comprehensive evaluation and management.


Accurate diagnosis involves blood tests to check for specific antibodies, followed by a biopsy of the small intestine to assess damage. Genetic testing may also contribute to the diagnostic process.


The cornerstone of celiac disease management is a strict gluten-free diet. This involves avoiding all sources of gluten, including wheat, barley, and rye. Nutritional supplements may be necessary to address deficiencies.



As celiac disease has a genetic component, prevention involves identifying individuals at risk, especially those with a family history, and promoting a gluten-free lifestyle.


When to Consult a Doctor:

If symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, or fatigue are persistent, consulting a healthcare professional is crucial for proper evaluation and diagnosis.



Celiac Disease requires a multidimensional approach involving awareness, early diagnosis, and adherence to a gluten-free diet. Understanding the causes, timely diagnosis, and effective treatment contribute to better management and improved quality of life for individuals with celiac disease.

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