Dr AvinashTank, is a super-specialist (MCh) Laparoscopic Gastro-intestinal Surgeon,

Diabetes Surgery

Amazing Facts about Diabetes

  • Global Prevalence: Diabetes is a global health concern, with an estimated 463 million adults worldwide living with diabetes in 2019. This number is expected to rise to 700 million by 2045. (Source)
  • Insulin Discovery: Insulin, a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels, was discovered in 1921 by Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best. This breakthrough revolutionized the treatment of type 1 diabetes and saved countless lives. (Source)
  • Types of Diabetes: There are different types of diabetes, including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Each type has its own causes, risk factors, and management strategies. (Source)
  • Diabetes and Mental Health: Diabetes can have an impact on mental health, and individuals with diabetes may experience increased stress, anxiety, and depression. It is important to address the emotional well-being of individuals with diabetes and provide them with the necessary support and resources. (Source)

4 Reasons for Early Treatment of  Diabetes

  1. Blood Sugar Control: Early treatment of diabetes helps in achieving and maintaining optimal blood sugar control. This reduces the risk of long-term complications associated with high blood sugar levels, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney damage, nerve damage, and vision problems.
  2. Prevention of Complications: Diabetes can lead to various complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, eye damage, and nerve damage.
  3. Lifestyle Modifications: Early treatment provides an opportunity for individuals to make necessary lifestyle modifications, such as adopting a healthy diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight. These lifestyle changes are crucial for blood sugar control, weight management, and overall health.
  4. Education and Support: Early treatment allows individuals to receive education and support from healthcare professionals, diabetes educators, and support groups. This helps in understanding the condition, learning self-management skills, and addressing any concerns or questions related to diabetes management.

Complications of Untreated Diabetes

  1. Cardiovascular Complications: Untreated diabetes can lead to various cardiovascular complications, including heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. Elevated blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of these conditions.
  2. Kidney Disease: Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney disease, also known as diabetic nephropathy. Untreated diabetes can damage the kidneys over time, leading to reduced kidney function and potentially kidney failure.
  3. Nerve Damage: High blood sugar levels can cause nerve damage, known as diabetic neuropathy. This can result in numbness, tingling, or pain in the extremities, as well as problems with digestion, sexual function, and coordination.
  4. Eye Complications: Untreated diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the eyes, leading to diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. These conditions can cause vision loss and even blindness if left untreated.

Celebrities who have Diabetes

Tom Hanks

The Oscar-winning actor announced he has type 2 diabetes when late-night host David Letterman commented on his newly slim figure in October 2013. “I went to the doctor and he said, ‘You know those high blood sugar numbers you’ve been dealing with since you were 36? Well, you’ve graduated. You’ve got type 2 diabetes, young man.'” Hanks added that the condition is controllable, but he joked that he couldn’t get back down to his high-school weight of 96 pounds. “I was a very skinny boy!” (Source) 

Salma Hayek

The Oscar-nominee had gestational diabetes, which happens during pregnancy, while expecting her daughter, Valentina. Hayek has a family history of diabetes. Experts say all women should get checked for gestational diabetes when they are 24-28 weeks pregnant. Those at risk for type 2 diabetes are checked at their first prenatal visit. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after delivery, but  it could return with a later pregnancy. It can also make you more likely to get type 2 diabetes later on. (Source) 

Billie Jean King

Tennis champion Billie Jean King was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at age 63. According to King, she had previously had an eating disorder. (Source) 

Samantha Ruth Prabhu

Popular South Indian Actress was diagnosed with diabetes in 2013. She overcame it with healthy eating and exercising. (Source) 

Nick Jonas

Nick Jonas was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the young age of 13. But this never slowed him down. He learned to manage his diabetes with healthy eating and exercising. (Source) 

What is Diabetes Surgery

Overview

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that disrupts the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels effectively. There are two primary types of diabetes:
  1. a. Type 1 Diabetes: This autoimmune condition occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Individuals with type 1 diabetes require lifelong insulin therapy.
  2. b. Type 2 Diabetes: This form of diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, where the body’s cells do not effectively respond to insulin. It is often associated with lifestyle factors, such as obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity.
Other types-
  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus (diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy)
  2. Specific types of diabetes due to other causes, e.g., genetic defects in B-cell function, genetic defects in insulin action, diseases of the exocrine pan-creas (such as cystic fibrosis), and drug-or chemical-induced (such as in the treatment of AIDS or after organ trans-plantation)

The Role of Diabetic Surgery

Diabetic surgery, also referred to as metabolic surgery or bariatric surgery, involves surgical interventions that aim to improve blood sugar control and metabolic health in individuals with diabetes. These procedures work by altering the gastrointestinal anatomy, affecting hormonal regulation, and improving insulin sensitivity.

Types of Diabetic Surgery

  1. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: This procedure involves creating a small pouch from the stomach and connecting it directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper intestine. It restricts food intake and alters the digestive process, leading to weight loss and improved glycemic control.
  2. Sleeve Gastrectomy: In this surgery, a large portion of the stomach is removed, leaving behind a smaller, banana-shaped pouch. This reduces the stomach’s capacity, limiting food intake and influencing hormonal changes that can improve blood sugar control.
  3. Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch: This complex procedure involves a sleeve gastrectomy to reduce the stomach’s size and rerouting the small intestine to limit nutrient absorption. It leads to substantial weight loss and significant improvements in diabetes management.

Who needs Diabetes Surgery

Diabetes surgery, also known as metabolic surgery or bariatric surgery, is typically recommended for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes who have not achieved sufficient blood sugar control through other means such as lifestyle changes and medication. The following groups of people may benefit from diabetes surgery:
  1. Individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 35: Diabetes surgery may be considered for individuals with a BMI above 35 who have not achieved adequate blood sugar control through other methods.
  2. Individuals with a BMI above 30 and additional health conditions: Diabetes surgery may be recommended for individuals with a BMI above 30 who also have other obesity-related health conditions such as high blood pressure, sleep apnea, or heart disease.
  3. Individuals with uncontrolled diabetes: If an individual has uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, meaning that blood sugar levels remain consistently high despite lifestyle changes and medication, diabetes surgery may be an option to improve blood sugar control.
  4. Individuals motivated to make long-term lifestyle changes: Diabetes surgery is most effective when combined with long-term lifestyle changes, including a healthy diet and regular exercise. Individuals who are committed to making these changes and maintaining them after surgery may be good candidates for diabetes surgery.
It is important to consult with a healthcare professional specializing in diabetes and metabolic surgery to determine if diabetes surgery is appropriate for an individual’s specific situation. The decision to undergo diabetes surgery should be made after a thorough evaluation of the potential risks and benefits and with the guidance of a healthcare team.

How to prepare for Diabetes Surgery

Preparing for diabetes surgery involves several steps to ensure the best possible outcome and minimize any potential risks. Here are some general guidelines for preparing for diabetes surgery:
  1. Medical evaluation: Your healthcare team will conduct a thorough medical evaluation to assess your overall health and suitability for surgery. This may include blood tests, imaging tests, and consultations with various specialists.
  2. Education and counseling: You will receive education and counseling about the procedure, including its potential risks, benefits, and expected outcomes. You will also learn about the necessary lifestyle changes, including dietary modifications and exercise, that are essential for long-term success.
  3. Pre-surgical weight loss: In some cases, your healthcare team may recommend losing weight prior to surgery. This helps reduce the risk of complications during the procedure and can also improve surgical outcomes.
  4. Dietary adjustments: Your healthcare team may provide guidelines for dietary adjustments before surgery. This may involve reducing calorie intake, limiting certain foods, or following a specific meal plan to optimize your nutritional status and prepare your body for the procedure.
  5. Smoking cessation: If you are a smoker, it is highly recommended to quit smoking prior to surgery. Smoking can increase the risk of complications during and after surgery, so quitting smoking will greatly improve your surgical outcomes.
  6. Medication adjustments: Your healthcare team will review your current medications and make any necessary adjustments before surgery. This may include discontinuing certain medications that could interfere with the procedure or adjusting the dosage of others.
  7. Psychological support: Diabetes surgery can have a significant impact on your emotional well-being. Your healthcare team may recommend psychological support, such as counseling or support groups, to help you prepare mentally and emotionally for the surgery and the lifestyle changes that follow.
It is important to follow all pre-surgical instructions provided by your healthcare team and attend all scheduled appointments. They will guide you through the preparation process and ensure that you are physically and mentally ready for diabetes surgery.

Benefits of Diabetes Surgery

  1. Improved Glycemic Control: Diabetic surgery has been shown to result in significant improvements in blood sugar control, leading to a reduction in medication requirements and better management of diabetes.
  2. Weight Loss and Metabolic Changes: These surgical interventions promote weight loss, which can positively impact insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. They can help individuals achieve sustainable weight loss and maintain long-term improvements.
  3. Remission of Diabetes: Diabetic surgery has the potential to induce remission or significant improvement in type 2 diabetes. Many individuals experience reduced or eliminated dependence on diabetes medication.
  4. Cardiovascular Benefits: Diabetic surgery can lead to improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, such as high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, reducing the risk of heart disease.

Risks of Diabetes Surgery

  1. Eligibility: Diabetic surgery is typically considered for individuals with type 2 diabetes who have not achieved adequate blood sugar control with other interventions. Candidates should meet specific criteria, including BMI thresholds and evidence of failed attempts at lifestyle modifications and medication management.
  2. Lifestyle Changes: Successful outcomes require commitment to long-term lifestyle changes, including a healthy diet, regular exercise, and ongoing medical follow-up.
  3. Potential Complications: Like any surgical procedure, diabetic surgery carries potential risks, including infection, bleeding, blood clots, and digestive system issues. However, the overall risks are generally low, and advancements in surgical techniques have improved safety.
  4. Nutritional Considerations: Following diabetic surgery, individuals may need to make dietary adjustments and take supplements to ensure proper nutrition and prevent nutrient deficiencies.
 

What to do after Diabetes Surgery

After diabetes surgery, it is important to follow post-operative guidelines and make necessary lifestyle changes to support your recovery and maximize the benefits of the surgery. Here are some key steps to take after diabetes surgery:
  1. Follow dietary recommendations: Your healthcare team will provide specific dietary guidelines tailored to your needs. This may include a gradual transition to a modified diet, such as consuming smaller portion sizes, focusing on nutrient-dense foods, and avoiding certain foods or beverages. Adhering to these dietary recommendations is crucial for managing your blood sugar levels and achieving weight loss goals.
  2. Regular physical activity: Engage in regular physical activity as recommended by your healthcare team. Regular exercise helps with weight management, improves insulin sensitivity, and enhances overall health. Start with low-impact activities and gradually increase intensity and duration over time.
  3. Medication management: Your medication regimen may change after diabetes surgery. It is important to closely follow the instructions provided by your healthcare team regarding the use of diabetes medications, including insulin or oral medications. Regularly monitor your blood sugar levels and report any significant changes to your healthcare provider.
  4. Attend follow-up appointments: Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare team are essential for monitoring your progress, addressing any concerns or complications, and making necessary adjustments to your treatment plan. These appointments provide an opportunity to assess your long-term success and provide ongoing support.
  5. Emotional support: Diabetes surgery can have a significant impact on your emotional well-being. Seek emotional support through counseling, support groups, or online communities to address any psychological challenges that may arise during your recovery journey.
  6. Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Adopt and maintain a healthy lifestyle that includes a balanced diet, regular physical activity, stress management, and adequate sleep. These lifestyle factors contribute to overall well-being and can enhance the long-term success of diabetes surgery.
  7. Stay connected with your healthcare team: Communicate any changes, concerns, or questions to your healthcare team. They are there to support you and provide guidance throughout your post-operative journey.
Remember that diabetes surgery is not a cure for diabetes but a tool to help manage the condition. It is important to commit to lifelong healthy habits and follow the recommendations of your healthcare team to achieve optimal outcomes and improve your overall health.

80 years old, heart patient. Nevertheless, a ruptured gall bladder was successfully treated with binoculars.

Celebrities who have Diabetes

Tom Hanks

The Oscar-winning actor announced he has type 2 diabetes when late-night host David Letterman commented on his newly slim figure in October 2013. “I went to the doctor and he said, ‘You know those high blood sugar numbers you’ve been dealing with since you were 36? Well, you’ve graduated. You’ve got type 2 diabetes, young man.'” Hanks added that the condition is controllable, but he joked that he couldn’t get back down to his high-school weight of 96 pounds. “I was a very skinny boy!”

Salma Hayek

The Oscar-nominee had gestational diabetes, which happens during pregnancy, while expecting her daughter, Valentina. Hayek has a family history of diabetes. Experts say all women should get checked for gestational diabetes when they are 24-28 weeks pregnant. Those at risk for type 2 diabetes are checked at their first prenatal visit. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after delivery, but it could return with a later pregnancy. It can also make you more likely to get type 2 diabetes later on.

Billie Jean King

Tennis champion Billie Jean King was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at age 63. According to King, she had previously had an eating disorder.

Samantha Ruth Prabhu

Popular South Indian Actress was diagnosed with diabetes in 2013. She overcame it with healthy eating and exercising.

Nick Jonas

Nick Jonas was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the young age of 13. But this never slowed him down. He learned to manage his diabetes with healthy eating and exercising

Amazing Facts about Diabetes

Diabetes is a global health concern, with an estimated 463 million adults worldwide living with diabetes in 2019. This number is expected to rise to 700 million by 2045. (Source)

Insulin, a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels, was discovered in 1921 by Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best. This breakthrough revolutionized the treatment of type 1 diabetes and saved countless lives. (Source)

There are different types of diabetes, including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Each type has its own causes, risk factors, and management strategies. (Source)

Diabetes can have an impact on mental health, and individuals with diabetes may experience increased stress, anxiety, and depression. It is important to address the emotional well-being of individuals with diabetes and provide them with the necessary support and resources. (Source)

4 Reasons for Early Treatment of Diabetes

Complications of Untreated Diabetes

What is Diabetes Surgery

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that disrupts the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar levels effectively. There are two primary types of diabetes:

  1. a. Type 1 Diabetes: This autoimmune condition occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Individuals with type 1 diabetes require lifelong insulin therapy.
  2. b. Type 2 Diabetes: This form of diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, where the body’s cells do not effectively respond to insulin. It is often associated with lifestyle factors, such as obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity.

Other types-

  1. Gestational diabetes mellitus (diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy)
  2. Specific types of diabetes due to other causes, e.g., genetic defects in B-cell function, genetic defects in insulin action, diseases of the exocrine pan-creas (such as cystic fibrosis), and drug-or chemical-induced (such as in the treatment of AIDS or after organ trans-plantation)

The Role of Diabetic Surgery

Diabetic surgery, also referred to as metabolic surgery or bariatric surgery, involves surgical interventions that aim to improve blood sugar control and metabolic health in individuals with diabetes. These procedures work by altering the gastrointestinal anatomy, affecting hormonal regulation, and improving insulin sensitivity.

Types of Diabetic Surgery

  1. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: This procedure involves creating a small pouch from the stomach and connecting it directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper intestine. It restricts food intake and alters the digestive process, leading to weight loss and improved glycemic control.
  2. Sleeve Gastrectomy: In this surgery, a large portion of the stomach is removed, leaving behind a smaller, banana-shaped pouch. This reduces the stomach’s capacity, limiting food intake and influencing hormonal changes that can improve blood sugar control.
  3. Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch: This complex procedure involves a sleeve gastrectomy to reduce the stomach’s size and rerouting the small intestine to limit nutrient absorption. It leads to substantial weight loss and significant improvements in diabetes management.

Who needs Diabetes Surgery

Diabetes surgery, also known as metabolic surgery or bariatric surgery, is typically recommended for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes who have not achieved sufficient blood sugar control through other means such as lifestyle changes and medication. The following groups of people may benefit from diabetes surgery:

  1. Individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 35: Diabetes surgery may be considered for individuals with a BMI above 35 who have not achieved adequate blood sugar control through other methods.
  2. Individuals with a BMI above 30 and additional health conditions: Diabetes surgery may be recommended for individuals with a BMI above 30 who also have other obesity-related health conditions such as high blood pressure, sleep apnea, or heart disease.
  3. Individuals with uncontrolled diabetes: If an individual has uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, meaning that blood sugar levels remain consistently high despite lifestyle changes and medication, diabetes surgery may be an option to improve blood sugar control.
  4. Individuals motivated to make long-term lifestyle changes: Diabetes surgery is most effective when combined with long-term lifestyle changes, including a healthy diet and regular exercise. Individuals who are committed to making these changes and maintaining them after surgery may be good candidates for diabetes surgery.

It is important to consult with a healthcare professional specializing in diabetes and metabolic surgery to determine if diabetes surgery is appropriate for an individual’s specific situation. The decision to undergo diabetes surgery should be made after a thorough evaluation of the potential risks and benefits and with the guidance of a healthcare team.

How to prepare for Diabetes Surgery

Preparing for diabetes surgery involves several steps to ensure the best possible outcome and minimize any potential risks. Here are some general guidelines for preparing for diabetes surgery:

  1. Medical evaluation: Your healthcare team will conduct a thorough medical evaluation to assess your overall health and suitability for surgery. This may include blood tests, imaging tests, and consultations with various specialists.
  2. Education and counseling: You will receive education and counseling about the procedure, including its potential risks, benefits, and expected outcomes. You will also learn about the necessary lifestyle changes, including dietary modifications and exercise, that are essential for long-term success.
  3. Pre-surgical weight loss: In some cases, your healthcare team may recommend losing weight prior to surgery. This helps reduce the risk of complications during the procedure and can also improve surgical outcomes.
  4. Dietary adjustments: Your healthcare team may provide guidelines for dietary adjustments before surgery. This may involve reducing calorie intake, limiting certain foods, or following a specific meal plan to optimize your nutritional status and prepare your body for the procedure.
  5. Smoking cessation: If you are a smoker, it is highly recommended to quit smoking prior to surgery. Smoking can increase the risk of complications during and after surgery, so quitting smoking will greatly improve your surgical outcomes.
  6. Medication adjustments: Your healthcare team will review your current medications and make any necessary adjustments before surgery. This may include discontinuing certain medications that could interfere with the procedure or adjusting the dosage of others.
  7. Psychological support: Diabetes surgery can have a significant impact on your emotional well-being. Your healthcare team may recommend psychological support, such as counseling or support groups, to help you prepare mentally and emotionally for the surgery and the lifestyle changes that follow.

It is important to follow all pre-surgical instructions provided by your healthcare team and attend all scheduled appointments. They will guide you through the preparation process and ensure that you are physically and mentally ready for diabetes surgery.

Benefits of Diabetes Surgery

Risks of Diabetes Surgery

  1. Eligibility: Diabetic surgery is typically considered for individuals with type 2 diabetes who have not achieved adequate blood sugar control with other interventions. Candidates should meet specific criteria, including BMI thresholds and evidence of failed attempts at lifestyle modifications and medication management.
  2. Lifestyle Changes: Successful outcomes require commitment to long-term lifestyle changes, including a healthy diet, regular exercise, and ongoing medical follow-up.
  3. Potential Complications: Like any surgical procedure, diabetic surgery carries potential risks, including infection, bleeding, blood clots, and digestive system issues. However, the overall risks are generally low, and advancements in surgical techniques have improved safety.
  4. Nutritional Considerations: Following diabetic surgery, individuals may need to make dietary adjustments and take supplements to ensure proper nutrition and prevent nutrient deficiencies.

What to do after Diabetes Surgery

After diabetes surgery, it is important to follow post-operative guidelines and make necessary lifestyle changes to support your recovery and maximize the benefits of the surgery. Here are some key steps to take after diabetes surgery:

Remember that diabetes surgery is not a cure for diabetes but a tool to help manage the condition. It is important to commit to lifelong healthy habits and follow the recommendations of your healthcare team to achieve optimal outcomes and improve your overall health.

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