Dr AvinashTank, is a super-specialist (MCh) Laparoscopic Gastro-intestinal Surgeon,

Bariatric Surgery

Amazing Facts about Bariatric Surgery

  • The First Ever Bariatric Surgery: Historical reports claim that the first bariatric surgery was performed in Spain, in the 10th century. D. Sancho, king of Leon was reported to be such an obese man that he could not walk, ride a horse or pick up a sword. This led him to lose his throne. He was then escorted by his grandmother to Cordoba to be treated by the famous Jewish doctor Hasdai Ibn Shaprut. He sutured the kings’ lips who could only be fed on a liquid diet through a straw, consisting of teriaca: a mixture of several herbs, including opium, whose side effects stimulated weight loss. King Sancho lost half his weight, returned to Leon on his horse and regained his throne! (Source)
  • The First Metabolic Surgery: The first metabolic surgery is attributed to Kremen in 1954: the jejuno-ileal bypass. However, it oftem led to severe diarrhea and dehydration. Several modifications of this intestinal bypass procedure were reported in the 1960s and 70s, but none of them gained widespread acceptance. In 1966, Dr. Mason, a surgeon from the University of Iowa, noting that patients with sub-total gastrectomy for cancer lost a considerable amount of weight, proposed the first “bariatric surgery”: the first gastric bypass. (Source)
  • Significant and Sustainable Weight Loss: Bariatric surgery has been shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss for many patients. Studies have indicated that individuals can lose up to 70% of their excess body weight within the first year following surgery. (Source)

4 Reasons for Early Treatment of Obesity

  1. Health Risks: Obesity is associated with numerous health risks, including an increased risk of developing chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. 
  2. Quality of Life: Obesity can significantly impact a person’s quality of life, leading to physical discomfort, reduced mobility, low self-esteem, and mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. 
  3. Long-term Weight Management: Addressing obesity early on allows individuals to develop and adopt healthy lifestyle habits that promote long-term weight management. 
  4. Prevention of Complications: Obesity can increase the risk of various complications, such as sleep apnea, joint problems, infertility, and pregnancy complications. 

Complications of Untreated Obesity

  1. Cardiovascular Disease: Untreated obesity significantly increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure.
  2. Type 2 Diabetes: Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Uncontrolled obesity can lead to insulin resistance, where the body’s cells become less responsive to insulin. This can result in elevated blood sugar levels and the onset of diabetes.
  3. Joint Problems: The excessive weight puts additional stress on the joints, particularly in the knees, hips, and lower back. Over time, this can lead to joint pain, osteoarthritis, and decreased mobility.
  4. Respiratory Issues: Obesity can contribute to respiratory problems such as sleep apnea, a condition characterized by interrupted breathing during sleep. Untreated obesity can also lead to reduced lung function and an increased risk of developing asthma.

Celebrity Weight Loss Transformations

Adnan Sami

The singer, who has rocked the nation with some of the all-time hits, has been known for his weight transformation. Adnan, who weighed 206 kg, lost over 130 kilos in just one year and set up some great fitness goals for all of us. (Source) 

Arjun Kapoor

Arjun Kapoor has often spoken about his struggle with weight loss. Arjun’s battle with obesity saw him lose 50 kgs in three years. (Source) 

Sonakshi Sinha

The Dabangg Sonakshi Sinha was a chubby girl before she stole our hearts as Rajjo. She used to be 90 kgs before she made her debut opposite Salman Khan. For her, losing 30 kgs wasn’t easy but she did it by working out regularly and eating healthy. (Source) 

What is Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric or Obesity surgery encompasses a range of surgical procedures designed to help individuals achieve significant and sustained weight loss by altering the digestive system’s anatomy and physiology. These procedures restrict the amount of food the stomach can hold, limit nutrient absorption, or both, resulting in reduced calorie intake and improved metabolism. While obesity surgery is not a quick fix or a substitute for lifestyle changes, it can be an effective tool for long-term weight management when combined with healthy habits.

Types of Bariatric Surgery

Several types of obesity surgery are available, each with its unique approach and mechanism of action. The most common procedures include:

1. Sleeve Gastrectomy Surgery:

Sleeve gastrectomy is a widely performed obesity surgery procedure. During the surgery, a large portion of the stomach is removed, creating a smaller sleeve-shaped stomach. This results in reduced food intake and decreased appetite due to hormonal changes. The surgery does not involve any rerouting of the intestines, making it a simpler and less invasive procedure compared to gastric bypass. Sleeve gastrectomy promotes weight loss by restricting food intake and reducing hunger, leading to significant and sustained weight loss. It also improves obesity-related comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

2. Gastric Bypass Operation:

Gastric bypass surgery is one of the most common and effective weight loss procedures. It involves creating a small stomach pouch by stapling a portion of the stomach and connecting it to the small intestine. This bypasses a part of the digestive system, limiting food intake and reducing calorie absorption. Gastric bypass promotes weight loss by both restrictive and malabsorptive mechanisms. The procedure not only helps patients achieve significant weight loss but also improves obesity-related conditions, such as diabetes, high cholesterol, and sleep apnea.

3. Mini Gastric Bypass:

Mini gastric bypass is a variation of the traditional gastric bypass surgery. It involves creating a smaller stomach pouch and bypassing a portion of the small intestine. This procedure is less complex and time-consuming than the traditional gastric bypass, offering potential benefits such as shorter operative time, fewer complications, and quicker recovery. Mini gastric bypass provides significant weight loss results, improves metabolic conditions, and enhances overall quality of life.

4. Biliopancreatic Diversion:

Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is a less common obesity surgery procedure reserved for individuals with severe obesity. It involves removing a portion of the stomach and rerouting the digestive system to reduce food absorption. BPD combines both restrictive and malabsorptive components, leading to significant weight loss. However, due to the higher complexity and potential for nutritional deficiencies, BPD is typically recommended for patients with a high body mass index (BMI) or obesity-related health complications.

5. Gastric Balloon:

Gastric balloon is a non-surgical, temporary weight loss option for individuals who do not qualify for or prefer to avoid surgery. It involves placing a deflated balloon in the stomach through an endoscopic procedure, which is then inflated with a sterile solution. The balloon occupies space in the stomach, resulting in reduced food intake and increased feelings of fullness. Gastric balloon is typically used as a short-term measure to kickstart weight loss or as a bridge to surgery.

Who needs Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery is typically recommended for individuals who have severe obesity and have not been successful in losing weight through other methods such as diet and exercise. The specific criteria for eligibility may vary, but generally, bariatric surgery may be considered for individuals who:
  1. Have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher, which is considered morbidly obese.
  2. Have a BMI of 35 or higher with significant obesity-related health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea.
  3. Have made previous attempts to lose weight through non-surgical methods without long-term success.
  4. Are motivated and committed to making long-term lifestyle changes to support weight loss and improve overall health.
It’s important to note that bariatric surgery is not a cosmetic procedure or a quick fix for weight loss. It is a major surgical intervention that requires significant lifestyle changes and ongoing commitment to dietary and exercise habits. The decision to undergo bariatric surgery should be made in consultation with a healthcare professional who specializes in bariatric surgery, such as a bariatric surgeon or a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers. They will evaluate an individual’s medical history, overall health, and specific weight-related issues to determine if bariatric surgery is an appropriate option.

How to prepare for Bariatric Surgery

Preparing for bariatric surgery involves several steps to ensure the best possible outcome and minimize potential risks. Here are some general guidelines on how to prepare for bariatric surgery:
  1. Medical evaluation: Your healthcare team will conduct a comprehensive medical evaluation to assess your overall health and determine if you’re a suitable candidate for surgery. This may involve medical tests, blood work, imaging studies, and consultations with various specialists.
  2. Education and counseling: It’s important to attend educational sessions and counseling programs that provide information about the surgery, expected outcomes, potential risks, and necessary lifestyle changes. This helps you understand the procedure and make informed decisions.
  3. Lifestyle modifications: Before surgery, you may need to make certain lifestyle changes to improve your health and prepare your body for the surgery. This may include quitting smoking, managing any existing medical conditions, and adopting a healthier diet and exercise regimen.
  4. Nutritional counseling: A registered dietitian will guide you in making dietary changes before and after surgery. This typically involves following a specific preoperative diet to reduce liver size and improve surgical access, as well as learning about postoperative dietary guidelines to support weight loss and ensure proper nutrition.
  5. Psychological evaluation: Bariatric surgery can have a significant impact on your mental and emotional well-being. A psychological evaluation helps identify any underlying psychological issues, assess your readiness for surgery, and provide support throughout the process.
  6. Support system: Building a strong support system is crucial for a successful recovery. This may involve involving your family, friends, or support groups who can provide emotional support and practical assistance during your weight loss journey.
  7. Medication management: Your healthcare team will review your current medications and adjust or discontinue certain medications that may interfere with the surgery or postoperative care. It’s important to inform them about all medications, including over-the-counter and herbal supplements.
  8. Preoperative instructions: Your surgeon will provide specific instructions regarding fasting, hydration, and medication restrictions before the surgery. It’s essential to follow these instructions closely to ensure a safe and successful procedure.
It’s important to note that the preparation process may vary depending on the specific bariatric surgery procedure and the recommendations of your healthcare team. Make sure to communicate openly with your healthcare providers, attend all required appointments, and ask any questions or concerns you may have. Following their guidance and recommendations will help you have a smoother and more successful experience with bariatric surgery.

Benefits of Bariatric Surgery

Obesity surgery offers numerous benefits beyond weight loss. These include:
  1. Sustainable Weight Loss: Obesity surgery has been shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss, helping individuals achieve a healthier body weight and improve overall well-being.
  2. Improvement in Obesity-related Health Conditions: Obesity surgery often leads to the resolution or improvement of obesity-related health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and joint problems.
  3. Enhanced Quality of Life: Successful weight loss through obesity surgery can enhance self-esteem, body image, and overall quality of life, enabling individuals to engage in activities and experiences they may have previously avoided.
  4. Long-term Health Benefits: Obesity surgery has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, and mortality rates in obese individuals.

Risks of Bariatric Surgery

Obesity surgery, like any surgical procedure, carries potential risks and considerations. These can include:
  1. Surgical Complications: Risks associated with any surgery, such as infection, bleeding, blood clots, and adverse reactions to anesthesia.
  2. Nutritional Deficiencies: Some procedures may lead to decreased absorption of certain vitamins and minerals, necessitating lifelong supplementation and regular monitoring.
  3. Dumping Syndrome: Rapid emptying of the stomach contents into the small intestine, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, weakness, and diarrhea, particularly after consuming high-sugar or high-fat foods.
  4. Lifestyle Adjustments: Successful outcomes require significant lifestyle changes, including adopting a healthy diet, regular exercise, and long-term follow-up with healthcare professionals.

What to do after Bariatric Surgery

After undergoing bariatric surgery, it is essential to follow specific guidelines and make lifestyle changes to ensure a successful recovery and achieve optimal weight loss. Here are some important steps to take after bariatric surgery:
  1. Follow the postoperative diet: Your healthcare team will provide you with a detailed postoperative diet plan that gradually introduces solid foods. It typically starts with clear liquids and progresses to pureed and soft foods before transitioning to regular, healthy meals. Adhering to this diet plan is crucial to support healing, prevent complications, and promote weight loss.
  2. Take prescribed medications: Your surgeon may prescribe certain medications, such as pain relievers or supplements, to support your recovery. It’s important to take these medications as directed and communicate with your healthcare team regarding any concerns or side effects.
  3. Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day to stay hydrated. Aim for at least 64 ounces (8 cups) of water or other non-caloric beverages daily. Avoid consuming high-calorie or sugary drinks, as they can hinder weight loss and may cause discomfort.
  4. Regular exercise: Engage in regular physical activity as advised by your healthcare team. Start with light activities, such as walking, and gradually increase intensity and duration over time. Exercise not only supports weight loss but also promotes overall health, improves mood, and enhances muscle strength.
  5. Attend follow-up appointments: Regularly scheduled follow-up appointments with your healthcare team are essential after bariatric surgery. These appointments allow your healthcare providers to monitor your progress, address any concerns or complications, and make necessary adjustments to your treatment plan. Follow their recommendations and attend all scheduled appointments.
  6. Behavioral and nutritional counseling: Continue attending counseling sessions to address any emotional or psychological factors related to eating and weight management. Nutritional counseling can also provide ongoing support in making healthy food choices, monitoring your nutrient intake, and managing any dietary restrictions.
  7. Support and education: Seek support from family, friends, or support groups who understand your experience and can provide encouragement and motivation. Consider joining bariatric surgery support groups or online communities where you can share experiences, seek advice, and learn from others who have undergone similar procedures.
  8. Practice mindful eating: Focus on eating slowly, chewing food thoroughly, and paying attention to your body’s hunger and fullness cues. Practice mindful eating techniques to develop a healthier relationship with food and prevent overeating.
  9. Monitor weight loss and health: Keep track of your weight loss progress by regularly weighing yourself. However, remember that weight loss is a gradual process, and individual results may vary. Additionally, monitor your overall health, including any improvements in blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or other obesity-related conditions.
  10. Be patient and realistic: Bariatric surgery is a tool for weight loss, but it requires long-term commitment and lifestyle changes. Understand that weight loss will occur gradually over time, and focus on adopting sustainable habits rather than aiming for rapid results. Embrace the journey and celebrate small victories along the way.
Remember to consult with your healthcare team for personalized instructions and recommendations based on your specific surgery and individual needs. They will provide you with comprehensive guidance to support your recovery and help you achieve your weight loss goals.

Celebrity Weight Loss Transformations

Adnan Sami

The singer, who has rocked the nation with some of the all-time hits, has been known for his weight transformation. Adnan, who weighed 206 kg, lost over 130 kilos in just one year and set up some great fitness goals for all of us.

Arjun Kapoor

Arjun Kapoor has often spoken about his struggle with weight loss. Arjun’s battle with obesity saw him lose 50 kgs in three years.

Sonakshi Sinha

The Dabangg Sonakshi Sinha was a chubby girl before she stole our hearts as Rajjo. She used to be 90 kgs before she made her debut opposite Salman Khan. For her, losing 30 kgs wasn’t easy but she did it by working out regularly and eating healthy.

Amazing Facts about Bariatric Surgery

Historical reports claim that the first bariatric surgery was performed in Spain, in the 10th century. D. Sancho, king of Leon was reported to be such an obese man that he could not walk, ride a horse or pick up a sword. This led him to lose his throne. He was then escorted by his grandmother to Cordoba to be treated by the famous Jewish doctor Hasdai Ibn Shaprut. He sutured the kings’ lips who could only be fed on a liquid diet through a straw, consisting of teriaca: a mixture of several herbs, including opium, whose side effects stimulated weight loss. King Sancho lost half his weight, returned to Leon on his horse and regained his throne! (Source)

The first metabolic surgery is attributed to Kremen in 1954: the jejuno-ileal bypass. However, it oftem led to severe diarrhea and dehydration. Several modifications of this intestinal bypass procedure were reported in the 1960s and 70s, but none of them gained widespread acceptance. In 1966, Dr. Mason, a surgeon from the University of Iowa, noting that patients with sub-total gastrectomy for cancer lost a considerable amount of weight, proposed the first “bariatric surgery”: the first gastric bypass. (Source)

Bariatric surgery has been shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss for many patients. Studies have indicated that individuals can lose up to 70% of their excess body weight within the first year following surgery. (Source)

4 Reasons for Early Treatment of Obesity

Complications of Untreated Obesity

What is Bariatric Surgery?

Bariatric or Obesity surgery encompasses a range of surgical procedures designed to help individuals achieve significant and sustained weight loss by altering the digestive system’s anatomy and physiology. These procedures restrict the amount of food the stomach can hold, limit nutrient absorption, or both, resulting in reduced calorie intake and improved metabolism. While obesity surgery is not a quick fix or a substitute for lifestyle changes, it can be an effective tool for long-term weight management when combined with healthy habits.

Who needs Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery is typically recommended for individuals who have severe obesity and have not been successful in losing weight through other methods such as diet and exercise. The specific criteria for eligibility may vary, but generally, bariatric surgery may be considered for individuals who:

  1. Have a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher, which is considered morbidly obese.
  2. Have a BMI of 35 or higher with significant obesity-related health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea.
  3. Have made previous attempts to lose weight through non-surgical methods without long-term success.
  4. Are motivated and committed to making long-term lifestyle changes to support weight loss and improve overall health

It’s important to note that bariatric surgery is not a cosmetic procedure or a quick fix for weight loss. It is a major surgical intervention that requires significant lifestyle changes and ongoing commitment to dietary and exercise habits. The decision to undergo bariatric surgery should be made in consultation with a healthcare professional who specializes in bariatric surgery, such as a bariatric surgeon or a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers. They will evaluate an individual’s medical history, overall health, and specific weight-related issues to determine if bariatric surgery is an appropriate option.

Types of Bariatric Surgery

Several types of obesity surgery are available, each with its unique approach and mechanism of action. The most common procedures include

How to prepare for Bariatric Surgery

Preparing for bariatric surgery involves several steps to ensure the best possible outcome and minimize potential risks. Here are some general guidelines on how to prepare for bariatric surgery

It’s important to note that the preparation process may vary depending on the specific bariatric surgery procedure and the recommendations of your healthcare team. Make sure to communicate openly with your healthcare providers, attend all required appointments, and ask any questions or concerns you may have. Following their guidance and recommendations will help you have a smoother and more successful experience with bariatric surgery.

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What to do after Bariatric Surgery

After undergoing bariatric surgery, it is essential to follow specific guidelines and make lifestyle changes to ensure a successful recovery and achieve optimal weight loss.

Follow the postoperative diet:

Your healthcare team will provide you with a detailed postoperative diet plan that gradually introduces solid foods. It typically starts with clear liquids and progresses to pureed and soft foods before transitioning to regular, healthy meals. Adhering to this diet plan is crucial to support healing, prevent complications, and promote weight loss.

Take prescribed medications:

Your surgeon may prescribe certain medications, such as pain relievers or supplements, to support your recovery. It’s important to take these medications as directed and communicate with your healthcare team regarding any concerns or side effects.

Stay hydrated:

Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day to stay hydrated. Aim for at least 64 ounces (8 cups) of water or other non-caloric beverages daily. Avoid consuming high-calorie or sugary drinks, as they can hinder weight loss and may cause discomfort.

Regular exercise:

Engage in regular physical activity as advised by your healthcare team. Start with light activities, such as walking, and gradually increase intensity and duration over time. Exercise not only supports weight loss but also promotes overall health, improves mood, and enhances muscle strength.

Attend follow-up appointments:

Regularly scheduled follow-up appointments with your healthcare team are essential after bariatric surgery. These appointments allow your healthcare providers to monitor your progress, address any concerns or complications, and make necessary adjustments to your treatment plan. Follow their recommendations and attend all scheduled appointments.

Behavioral and nutritional counseling:

Continue attending counseling sessions to address any emotional or psychological factors related to eating and weight management. Nutritional counseling can also provide ongoing support in making healthy food choices, monitoring your nutrient intake, and managing any dietary restrictions.

Support and education:

Seek support from family, friends, or support groups who understand your experience and can provide encouragement and motivation. Consider joining bariatric surgery support groups or online communities where you can share experiences, seek advice, and learn from others who have undergone similar procedures.

Practice mindful eating:

Focus on eating slowly, chewing food thoroughly, and paying attention to your body’s hunger and fullness cues. Practice mindful eating techniques to develop a healthier relationship with food and prevent overeating.

Monitor weight loss and health:

Keep track of your weight loss progress by regularly weighing yourself. However, remember that weight loss is a gradual process, and individual results may vary. Additionally, monitor your overall health, including any improvements in blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or other obesity-related conditions.

Be patient and realistic:

Bariatric surgery is a tool for weight loss, but it requires long-term commitment and lifestyle changes. Understand that weight loss will occur gradually over time, and focus on adopting sustainable habits rather than aiming for rapid results. Embrace the journey and celebrate small victories along the way.

Remember to consult with your healthcare team for personalized instructions and recommendations based on your specific surgery and individual needs. They will provide you with comprehensive guidance to support your recovery and help you achieve your weight loss goals.

Benefits of Bariatric Surgery

Obesity surgery offers numerous benefits beyond weight loss.

Risks of Bariatric Surgery

Obesity surgery, like any surgical procedure, carries potential risks and considerations.

DR. AVINASH TANK

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